Sunday, December 17, 2017

Examples of English Tenses

ExplanationsPresent Simple
Action that is repeated every Friday. Habitual action.I visit my uncle every Friday
Facts that are believed to be true. GeneralizationsCats hate mice.
The sun rises in the morning.
Scheduled events in the near futureThe plane takes off at 10 o'clock tonight
ExplanationsPresent Progressive
Action that takes place now / at the momentI am working on my computer
Near futureI am leaving tomorrow
ExplanationsPresent Perfect
To talk about experiencesI have been to Italy.
Past action that has the result in the present.She has read that book.
Action which started in the past and continued up to now.I have lived in this town for 12 years.
ExplanationsPresent Perfect Progressive
To show that something started in the past and has continued up until now.He has been sleeping for the last 3 hours
To talk about an action that started in the past and stopped recently.The grass is wet because it has been raining all day long.
To talk about an action that started in the past and is continuing now.I have been watching TV for 2 hours / since you left.
ExplanationsPast Simple
Completed action in the past.She left yesterday.
To talk about an action that started in the past and stopped recently.She woke up, had a shower and left.
To talk about an action that started in the past and is continuing now.If I had a million dollar, I would help the poor.
An action taking place in the middle of another action.She was playing when the accident occurred.
ExplanationsPast Progressive
Actions happening at the same time in the past.He was reading a newspaper while his wife was preparing dinner.
Interrupted action in the past.Sh was reading a book when the light went off, had a shower and left.
ExplanationsPast Perfect Simple
Completed action before another action in the past.She had left when I arrived.
ExplanationsPast Perfect Progressive
To show that something started in the past and continued up until another action stopped it.They had been playing soccer when the accident occurred
To show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past.I had been living in that town for ten years before I moved to New York.
We use the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past to show cause and effect.I was so tired. I had been working for 6 hours.
ExplanationsFuture  Simple
Instant decisionsI've left the door open; I'll close it.
We use the simple future , when we predict a future situationShe'll pass the exam. She's hardworking.
We use the simple future with: "I (don't) think...", "I expect...", "I am sure...", "I wonder...", "probably".It will probably rain tonight
Conditional sentence type oneIf I have enough time, I'll watch the film.
ExplanationsFuture Progressive
Action that will be taking place at some time in the future.When you arrive, I'll be sleeping .
ExplanationsFuture Perfect
Completed action before another action in the pastBy tomorrow, I will have finished the work.
ExplanationsFuture Perfect Progressive
It is used to show that an action will continue up until a particular event or time in the future.She will have been working for over 8 hours by the time her children arrive.

Saturday, December 16, 2017

Conditional Simple

Conditional Simple
AffirmativeWe would relax.
NegativeWe would not relax.
InterrogativeWould we relax ?
Formwould + verb
Uses
  • action that might take place
Conditional Progressive
AffirmativeHe would be writing.
NegativeHe would not be writing.
InterrogativeWould he be writing?
Formwould + be + verb + ing
Uses
  • action that might take place
  • putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action
Conditional Perfect
AffirmativeHe would have written.
NegativeHe would not have written.
InterrogativeWould he have written?
Formwould + have + past participle (past participle of regular verbs: verb + ed | Past participle of irregular verbs: forms differ and should be learned by heart This is a list of irregular verbs)
Uses
  • action that might have taken place in the past
Conditional Perfect Progressive
AffirmativeShe would have been sleeping.
NegativeShe would not have sleeping speaking.
InterrogativeWould she have been sleeping?
Formwould + have + been + verb + ing
Uses
  • action that might have taken place in the past
  • puts emphasis on the course / duration of the action

Saturday, December 9, 2017

Past Perfect Simple

Past Perfect Simple
AffirmativeShe had won.
NegativeShe had not won.
InterrogativeHad she won?
Formhad + past participle (past participle of regular verbs: verb + ed | Past participle of irregular verbs: forms differ and should be learned by heart. This is a list of irregular verbs)
Uses
  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive
  • putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)
Past Perfect Progressive
AffirmativeHe had been waiting.
NegativeHe had not been waiting.
InterrogativeHad he been waiting?
Formhad + been + verb + ing
Uses
  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
  • putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action
Future Simple
AffirmativeI will open the door.
NegativeI will not open the door.
InterrogativeWill you open the door?
Formwill + verb
Uses
  • We use the simple future for instant decisions.
  • We use the simple future when we predict a future situation
  • We use the simple future in conditional sentences type one. (More on conditional sentences here)
Future Plan
(going to)
AffirmativeHe is going to clean the car.
NegativeHe is not going to clean the car.
InterrogativeIs he going to clean the car?
Formto be (in the simple present) + going + to + verb
Uses
  • to express the future when we intend to do something or have decided to do something but did not arrange it. It is just an intention.
  • predictions in the future
Future Plan
(Present Progressive)
AffirmativeHe is traveling to Egypt next week.
NegativeHe is not traveling to Egypt next week.
InterrogativeIs he traveling to Egypt next week?
Formto be (in the simple present) + verb + ing
Uses
  • when we say what we have planned and arranged to do at a specific time in the future. These are fixed plans with definite time and/or place.
Future  Progressive
AffirmativeShe will be listening to music.
NegativeShe will not be listening to music.
InterrogativeWill she be listening to music?
Formwill + be + verb + ing
Uses
  • action that is going on at a certain time in the future
  • action that is sure to happen in the near future
Future Perfect
AffirmativeHe will have spoken.
NegativeHe will not have spoken.
InterrogativeWill he have spoken?
Formwill + have + past participle (past participle of regular verbs: verb + ed | Past participle of irregular verbs: forms differ and should be learned by heart. This is a list of irregular verbs)
Uses
  • action that will be finished at a certain time in the future
Future Perfect Progressive
AffirmativeYou will have been studying.
NegativeYou will not have been studying.
InterrogativeWill you have been studying?
Formwill + have + been + verb + ing
Uses
  • action taking place before a certain time in the future
  • putting emphasis on the course of an action

Friday, December 8, 2017

Review of English tenses

Simple Present
AffirmativeShe drinks.
NegativeShe does not drink.
InterrogativeDoes she drink?
FormI, you we they play | he, she, it plays
Uses
  • action in the present taking place once, never or several times
  • facts
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action set by a timetable or schedule
Present Progressive
AffirmativeHe is reading.
NegativeHe is not reading.
InterrogativeIs he reading?
FormTo be (in the simple present) + verb + ing
Uses
  • action taking place at the moment of speaking
  • action arranged for the future
Simple Past
AffirmativeI cried.
NegativeI did not cry
InterrogativeDid I cry?
FormRegular verbs: Verb + ed | Irregular verbs: forms differ and should be learned by heart. This is a list of irregular verbs
Uses
  • action in the past taking place once, never or several times
  • actions taking place one after another
Past Progressive
AffirmativeHe was driving.
NegativeHe was not driving.
InterrogativeWas he driving?
Formto be (in the simple past) + verb + ing
Uses
  • action going on at a certain time in the past
  • actions taking place at the same time
  • action in the past that is interrupted by another action
Present Perfect Simple
AffirmativeThey have slept.
NegativeThey have not slept.
InterrogativeHave they slept?
FormHave / has + past participle (past participle of regular verbs: verb + ed | Past participle of irregular verbs: forms differ and should be learned by heart. This is a list of irregular verbs)
Uses
  • emphasis is on the result (not the duration)
  • action that started in the past & is still going on
  • action that stopped recently
  • finished action that has an influence on the present
Present Perfect Progressive
AffirmativeHe has been thinking.
NegativeHe has not been thinking.
InterrogativeHas he been thinking?
Formhave or has + been + verb + ing
Uses
  • putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)
  • action that recently stopped or is still going on
  • finished action that influenced the present

Saturday, December 2, 2017

Misrelated Modifier

All modifiers should connect clearly and immediately with the words you want them to modify. The reader shouldn't have to guess what you're trying to say.
Change:
Louisa saw some strange mushrooms playing in the park.
to:
While playing in the park, Louisa saw some strange mushrooms.
Probably it wasn't the mushrooms but Louisa playing in the park. By placing the modifying phrase right next to the word it modifies, we eliminate the confusion. Sometimes careless modifier placement can create several possible meanings.
Change:All afternoon I reminisced about friends I had known with my sister.
to:
All afternoon I reminisced with my sister about friends I had known.
or:
All afternoon I reminisced about friends my sister and I had known.
or:
All afternoon my sister and I reminisced about friends we had known.
In the first example "with my sister" is confusing because it could modify either "reminisced" or "had known" or both. The writer has a responsibility to make such relationships clear.