Friday, December 2, 2016




A.G.M.Annual General Meeting
absenteePerson not at the meeting, not present.
agendaWritten list of points to be discussed at a meeting.
alternativeChoice of two or more possibilities.
attendeeParticipant or person attending a meeting.
ballotSystem of secret voting;
voters place their ballot-papers in a ballot-box;
casting voteDeciding vote, usually by the Chairman, when votes are
in equal number.
chairman / chairpersonThe person who conducts the meeting.
clarifyMake something clearer by giving more information.
conferenceFormal meeting for discussion or exchange of views.
conference callTelephone call between three or more people in different places.
consensusGeneral agreement.
deadlineFuture date at which something must be done.
decisionReach a conclusion or resolution concerning future action.
i-conferenceA meeting or discussion between two or more people via the internet.
interruptStop a person who is speaking in order to say or do something.
itemA separate point for discussion on an agenda.
main pointWhat is most essential.
minutesA written summary of the proceedings at a meeting.
objectiveWhat is aimed at, what one wants to achieve or obtain.
point outDraw attention to something e.g. point out an increase in demand.
proposalA course of action put forward for consideration; to make a proposal.
proxy voteA vote cast by one person for another.
recommendAdvise a course of action;  make a recommendation.
show of handsRaised hands to express agreement or disagreement in a vote.
summaryA brief statement of the main points. 
taskA piece of work to be done;  to assign a task to someone.
unanimousIn complete agreement.
video conferenceConference linking people in different locations by satellite, TV, etc.
voteExpress one's agreement or disagreement;  to cast a vote.

Saturday, November 26, 2016

Marketing - Sales



after sales serviceService that continues after the sale of a product (maintenance, etc.)
agentPerson or company that acts for another and provides a specified service.
B2B e-commerceBusiness to business e-commerce : use of commercial networks, online product catalogues and other online resources to obtain better prices and reach new customers.
B2C e-commerceBusiness to consumer e-commerce :
online sale of goods and services directly to consumers.
benchmarkingComparing one's products to those of  competitors in order to improve quality and performance.
buyer1) Any person who makes a purchase.
2) A person employed to choose and buy stock for a company.
cash refund offerOffer to pay back part of the purchase price of a product to customers who send a "proof of purchase" to the manufacturer.
chain storeTwo or more shops or outlets that have the same owner and sell similar lines of merchandise.
clientA person who buys services or advice from a lawyer, an accountant or other professional.
closeFinalize a sale or deal.
convenience storeSmall shop located near a residential area that opens long hours, seven days a week.
couponCertificate that gives customers a saving when they purchase a specific product.
dealA business transaction.
department storeA large shop or store that carries a wide variety of product lines.
direct investmentEntering a foreign market by setting up assembly or manufacturing facilities in that country.
discountA reduction in price.
e-commerceBuying and selling by electronic means, primarily on the internet.
e-marketingPromotion of products and services over the internet.
extranetNetwork that connects a company with its suppliers and distributors
follow-upMaintain contact after the sale to ensure customer satisfaction.
franchiseAssociation between a manufacturer or wholesaler (franchiser) and an independent business person (franchisee) who buys the right to own and operate a unit in the franchise system.
guaranteeA promise that product will be repaired or replaced if faulty.
intranetA network that connects people to each other within a company.
joint ventureA way of entering a foreign market by joining with a foreign company to manufacture or market a product or service.
market leaderThe company with the largest market share in an industry.
mark upPercentage of the price added to the cost to reach a selling price.
opinion leaderPerson with a reference, who, because of competence, knowledge, or other characteristics, exerts influence on others.
packagingDesigning and producing the container or wrapper for a product.
product lineA group of products that are closely related.
prospectA potential customer.
representativeA person who represents and sells for a company.
retailTo sell in small quantities, as in a shop, directly to customers.
shopping centreGroup of shops developed and managed as a unit.
telephone marketingUsing the telephone to sell directly to customers.
trade fairAn exhibition at which companies in a specific industry can show or demonstrate their products.
viral marketingThe internet version of word-of-mouth marketing - email messages that customers pass on to friends.
wholesaleTo sell goods and services to those buying for resale (e.g. a shop) or for business use.

Friday, November 25, 2016

Investments - Stock Market

BidThe price a buyer is willing to offer for shares in a company.
Blue Chip StocksStocks of leading companies with a reputation for stable growth and earnings.
BondCertificate issued by companies and governments to their lenders.
CapitalMoney and other property of companies used in transacting the business.
Capital stockAll shares representing ownership of a company.
CommoditiesProducts such as agricultural products and natural resources (wood, oil and metals) that are traded on a separate, authorized commodities exchange.
DividendA portion of a  company's earnings which is paid to the shareholders/stockholders on a quarterly or annual basis.
EquityThe value of stocks and shares;  the net value of mortgaged property.
EquitiesStocks and shares which represent a portion of the capital of a company.
FuturesContracts to buy or sell securities at a future date.
InsiderAll those who have access to inside information concerning the company.
Insider dealing / tradingBuying or selling with the help of information known only to those connected with the business.
IPOInitial Public Offering - selling part of a company on the stock market.
IssuePut into circulation a number of a company's shares for sale.
LiabilitiesThe debts and obligations of a company or an individual.
MortgageAgreement by which a bank or building society lends money for the purchase of property, such as a  house or apartment.  The property is the security for the loan.
Mutual fundSavings fund that uses cash from a pool of savers to buy securities such as stock, bonds or real estate.
OptionThe right to buy and sell certain securities at a specified price and period of time.
Par valueNominal face value.
Penny stockShares selling at less than $1 a share.
PortfolioVarious types of securities held by an individual or institution.
SecuritiesTransferable certificates showing ownership of stocks, bonds, shares, options, etc.
ShareThe capital of a company is divided into shares which entitle the owner, or shareholder, to a proportion of the profits.
Share certificateCertificate representing the number of shares owned by an investor.
ShareholderOwner of shares.
SpeculatorSomeone who buys and sells stocks and shares in the hope of making a profit through changes in their value.
StockShares (portion of the capital of a business company) held by an investor.
StockbrokerA licensed professional who buys and sells stocks and shares for clients in exchange for a fee called a 'commission'.
StockholderPerson who owns stocks and shares.
TraderInvestor who holds stocks and securities for a short time (minutes, hours or days) with the objective of making profit from short-term gains in the market.
 Investment is generally based on stock price rather than on an evaluation of the company.
Trading sessionPeriod during which the Stock Exchange is open for trading.
Venture capitalMoney raised by companies to finance new ventures in exchange for percentage ownership.
YieldReturn on investment shown as a percentage.

Saturday, November 19, 2016

Interview Questions

Before the interview :
  • Prepare and practise giving responses to the questions without trying to memorise them.
  • Find out as much as possible about the company as well as the position you are interested in.
  • Remember to take an extra copy of your CV/résumé with you so that the employer can refer to it.

1Tell me about yourself.
2How would you describe yourself? (character / personality)
3Are you married?  Single?  Do you have partner?
4What are your strengths / weaknesses?
5What do you do in your free time?
What are your hobbies?  /  Do you have any hobbies?
6Why are you interested in working for our company?
Why do you want to work for this company?
7What type of position do you think you are suited for / would suit you?
8How would you describe the position we have to offer?
9What aspects of the position are you most / least interested in?
10What would you like to find in this job that you didn't have in your previous job?
11How do you think you could develop the position?
What would be your strategy to develop the position?
12What have you got to offer us?
What could you contribute to our company?
13What do you think you gained by working in your last job?
14What were you responsible for?
What did your job involve?
15What do you think of your (last) boss?
16Why do you want to leave your present job?
Why do you want to change jobs?
17What are your salary requirements?
How much would you hope to earn in this position?
How much do you think you should be offered for this position?
What salary would you expect (to be offered) for this position?
18Have you received any offers of a job?
19Why have you had to look for a job for so long?
Why have you been looking for a job for so long?
Why did it take you so long to find a new job?
20How do your feel about your future in the profession?
21Have you had any failures?  What failures have you had?
Have you had any negative experiences?
22What sort of obstacles have you come across / encountered in your work?
23If you had to recruit colleagues, what qualities would you look for?
24Would you be willing to relocate/to move to another part of the country/to work abroad?
25Don't you think you have too much experience / you are over-qualified for this job?
26How long do you think you would stay with us?
If we offered you this job, how long would you expect to stay with us?
27Which do you prefer : to work alone or in a team?
Do you prefer working alone or with other people as part of a team?
28Do you know how to manage a team?
Are you capable of leading a team?
Do you think you have the ability to be a team leader?
29Why should I recruit you?
How could you persuade me to recruit me?
30Do you have any comments to make, or any questions to ask?

Friday, November 18, 2016

Conclusions - useful phrases

  • We must focus our attention on ...
  • What I suggest is ...
  • There is a necessity for ...
  • We need more ...
  • We have no choice but to ...
  • Appropriate measures must be taken
  • The only option we have is to ...
  • These changes are inevitable.
  • We will have to revise our estimation.
  • The result / outcome will be ...
  • I strongly recommend ...
  • To conclude, I am happy / I regret to announce that ...