Saturday, September 24, 2016

Multiple-choice exercise

1.The children have _____ new teacher called Mr. Green
A AN THE No Article

2.Alex is in Boston studying for _____ MBA
A AN THE No Article

3.It would help us if you gave _____ honest opinion
A AN THE No Article

4.Jennifer tasted _____ birthday cake her mother had made
A AN THE No Article

5.Dad turned on _____ radio to listen to _____ news
A/A A/THE THE/THE No Article

Friday, September 23, 2016

Choose A, AN or THE to complete each sentence

1.The teacher read _____ interesting article from the newspaper.
A AN THE No article

2.Julie talked for _____ hour about her school projec
A AN THE No article

3.Danny wanted _____ new bicycle for Christmas
A AN THE No article

4.All pupils must obey _____ rules
A AN THE No article

5.The Mississippi river is in _____ United States of America
No article AN THE A

Saturday, September 17, 2016

WISH - IF

WISH :
  • To express a regret about the present, we use wish + the past simple :
    • I don't play the piano.  I wish I played the piano.
    • Pedro doesn't speak English.  Pedro wishes he spoke English.
  • When 'wish' if followed by the verb 'to be',  'were'  is used instead of 'was':
    • I don't have a lot of money.  I wish I were (not was) rich. 
    • I'm not very tall. I wish I were taller.
  • To express a regret about the past, we use wish + the past perfect :
    • Julie lost her umbrella yesterday.  Julie wishes she hadn't lost her umbrella.
    • Alex didn't revise his grammar.  Alex wishes he had revised his grammar.
  • To express a desire to change something, we use wish + would :
    • The children are making a lot of noise. I wish they would stop making noise.
    • The weather is awful.  I wish the weather would improve.
NOTE :  ‘I wish’ can be replaced with ‘if only’ which carries more emphasis.
◊  “If only you had told me in time!’ = “I wish you had told me in time.” 


IF :
  • After if, we often use were instead of was, especially in a formal style where it is considered more correct.
    • If I were rich, I would travel all over the world.
    • If  he were a better manager, the company would be more successful.
  • We use the structure "if I were you " + would to give advice
    • If I were you I would take English lessons.

Friday, September 16, 2016

WHO - WHOSE - WHOM - THAT - WHICH - WHERE

There is often confusion about the use of who, whose, whom, that, which or where. 
  • We use who when referring to people or when we want to know the person.
    • The person who answered the phone was very helpful.
    • Who ate all the chocolates?
  • We use which to refer to a thing or an idea, and to ask about choices.
    • My car, which is 20 years old, isn't worth much.
    • Which size would you like, small, medium or large?
  • We use that for both a person and a thing/idea.
    • I'm talking about the person that I saw yesterday. 
    • This is the style that I want to use.
  • Whose refers to ownership.
    • Whose dictionary is this?
    • There's the girl whose car was stolen.
  • Whom: 
    When who is the object of a verb, whomwith a preposition, can be used instead,
    but it is formal and rather old-fashioned. In modern speech, we use who, or we leave out
    the pronoun.
    • You are referring to a person who no longer works here.
    • The person to whom you are referring no longer works here.
    • The person (who) you are you referring to no longer works here.

    Whom is always used when it is preceded by quantifiers such as all ofboth offew of,
    many ofseveral of, etc. For example:
    • He addressed the spectators, most of whom remained seated.
  • Where (relative adverb) refers to places and locations.
    • Where is the station please?
    • That's where I spent my childhood. 

Examples of use :
I know a woman. She speaks 6 languages.I know a woman who speaks 6 languages.
I know a woman.  Her husband speaks 6 languages.I know a woman whose husband speaks 6 languages.
I spoke to a person yesterday.The person to whom I spoke yesterday.(formal)
The person (who) I spoke to yesterday. (informal)
I live in a house.  It is 200 years old.I live in a house which/that is 200 years old.
That's the hotel. We stayed there last year.That's the hotel where we stayed last year.
That's the hotel that we stayed in  last year.

When can we leave out relative pronouns  (who, whom,  which, that)?

In conversational English relative pronouns can be omitted when they are the object of a relative clause. In a formal context it is usually wiser to leave the relative pronoun.

SubjectVerbObject
Tomdrivesa red truck
→ The person who drives a red truck is called Tom.
In this sentence 'who' refers to the subject so it cannot be omitted.

→ The truck (that) Tom drives is red.

In this sentence 'that' refers to the object (the truck) so it can be omitted.

Compare :
  • The woman who wanted to see me is a doctor. ('Woman' is the subject of the sentence)
  • The woman (that) I wanted to see is a doctor. (Here 'woman' is the object, 'I" is the subject.)

Saturday, September 10, 2016

WHO - WHOM

There is often confusion about the use of who and whom. 
Who and whom are pronouns. 
Who is a subject pronoun, in the same way as 'he/she/they'. 
Whom is an object pronoun, in the same way as 'him/her/them'. 

In the sentence "John loves Julie." :
  • John is the subject of the verb 'love'
  • Julie is the object of John's affection.

Simple rule : If you can substitute 'he/they', use 'who'. 
 If you can substitute 'him/them', use 'whom'.


SubjectVerbObject
TomlovesJulie
WholovesJulie?
Tomloveswhom?

Subject
  • Who

    We use 'who' when it is the subject of a verb, that is, when it refers to the person who
    takes an action.
    • Julie played tennis. Julie is the subject of the verb 'to play'.
    • To find out the name of the player, we ask a question using 'who'.
      Who played tennis? Julie played tennis.
    • Who can also be used as the subject of a non-identifying clause:
      • There's Mr. Jones who bought the house next door.
Object
  • Whom
    We can use 'whom' as the object of a verb, but it is very formal and not often used in spoken English.
    • Formal English :     Whom did you see?
    • Everyday English :  Who did you see?
  • In formal English, whom is used directly after a preposition:
    • With whom did you play?
    • In informal conversational English, it is more usual to ask :
      • Who did you play with?
  • Whom is always used when it is preceded by quantifiers such as all ofboth offew of,many ofseveral of, etc. For example:
    • He addressed the spectators, most of whom remained seated.